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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 24-42

The experience of adult patients who have tracheostomy tubes in situ: A systematic review


Nursing Critical Care, School of Nursing, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

Correspondence Address:
Mohammed Al Humaid
Nursing Critical Care, King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sccj.sccj_2_17

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Background: There is a wide range of conditions requiring a patient to have tracheostomy tube insertion. The use of tracheostomy tubes in hospitals has increased among patients with both stable and critical conditions. Respiratory illness may make it necessary for patients to have an alternative breathing system (apart from the mouth or nose) whether as a temporary or permanent procedure. Patients have different experiences of tracheostomy tube insertion. Aims: This study aims to perform a systematic review of qualitative research into the experiences of patients treated with a tracheostomy tube. Objective: The objective of this study is to systematically appraise qualitative evidence on the experience of adult patients having a tracheostomy tube in situ. The report seeks to answer the following question: What are the experiences faced by adult patients with a tracheostomy tube in situ? Inclusion Criteria: Types of Participants: This review included any research that used qualitative methods to investigate the experiences of adult patients with tracheostomy tube insertion. Phenomenon of Interest: The phenomenon of interest was the experience of patients with a tracheostomy tube in situ either as a temporary or permanent procedure, either in hospital or in the community. Types of Studies: This review deliberated on studies that concentrated on qualitative data. The review included all study designs; for instance, phenomenology, action research, grounded theory, feminist research, and ethnography. Search Strategy: The review included all relevant studies published in Arabic and English obtained from the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE (PubMed), and Scopus and reference lists. There was no limitation on year of publication, and reference list items were searched along with keywords in the heading, abstract, and topic descriptors. Methodological Quality: The methodological quality of each study was assessed by applying the Joanna Briggs Institute's Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Data Collection: The study included adult patients treated with a tracheostomy tube. The research literature was searched using the standard methodology of qualitative research. The two reviewers then applied inclusion and exclusion criteria to the studies and evaluated the findings that met the inclusion criteria on the same subject. Data Synthesis: Synthesis of all data enabled a statement to be created that explains the experiences of adult patients with a tracheostomy tube in situ in the hospital or community. The data were then characterized according to the quality of findings and the similarity of meaning. Results: Four studies met the study selection criteria and were included in the systematic review that determined the experience of patients with a tracheostomy tube in situ. There were 18 findings extracted from the included studies. These were synthesized and then grouped into seven categories in relation to similarity of meaning. The seven categories remaining were then synthesized in a meta-synthesis that produced four outcomes linked to the experiences of participants having a tracheostomy tube in situ: (i) Communication is fundamental. (ii) The experience has both physical and psychological impacts. (iii) There are long-term consequences. (iv) Staff and patients work together to achieve positive outcomes. Conclusions: In the studies appraised by the reviewers, the importance of understanding the experiences of adult patients with tracheostomy tubes in situ was clarified. Patients have a right to experience correct practices that may help them to adapt to a new lifestyle with a tracheostomy. Implications for Practice: Patients should be given support physically, psychosocially, and emotionally after tracheostomy tube insertion. In addition, nurses' awareness about patients' educational needs regarding tracheostomy care, before discharge from hospital, needs to be increased. Implications for Further Research: Further research is required to identify the ways to reduce patients' negative experiences after having a tracheostomy tube in situ.


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